Posts Tagged ‘Vaejovis’


 

ZooKeys-270-021-g005ZooKeys-270-021-g001 (1) ZooKeys-270-021-g002Abstract

A new species of the vorhiesi group of Vaejovis C.L. Koch, 1836, Vaejovis brysoni sp. n., is described from the Santa Catalina Mountains in southern Arizona. Vaejovis deboerae Ayrey also inhabits this mountain range, making this the first documented case of two vorhiesi group species distributed on the same mountain. When compared to all other vorhiesi group species, Vaejovis brysoni sp. n. is distinct based on several combinations of morphological characters and morphometric ratios.

Introduction

For over 50 years, only four species of montane scorpions in the specious genus Vaejoviswere known from the topographically complex states of Arizona, New Mexico and Sonora. That number has more than doubled over the past six years, with a total of 13 species now known (see Graham et al. 2012), all belonging to the Vaejovis vorhiesi group (Soleglad and Fet 2008). All 13 species have allopatric distributions in Arizona (Sissom et al. 2012), and no records of co-occurrence have been documented. Interestingly, however, several species are distributed across overlapping ecological communities. For example, Vaejovis jonesi Stahnke (1940) inhabits rocky juniper woodlands on the Colorado Plateau, and Vaejovis lapidicola Stahnke (1940) is distributed across pine-oak woodlands along the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau. These ecological communities overlap across the rim of the Mogollon Plateau, yet to date Vaejovisjonesi and Vaejovis lapidicola have not been found syntopically. Vaejovis deboerae Ayrey (2009)was recently described from the high pine-oak forests of the Santa Catalina Mountains in southern Arizona. The type series was collected at an elevation of 2142 m. Other records suggest that Vaejovis deboerae may range as high as 2800 m and as low as 1520 m (Sissom et al. 2012). This vertical distribution encompasses a gradient of ecological communities, ranging from cold pine forest on the high peaks of the Santa Catalina to drier juniper desert scrub in the lower canyons. Recent collecting in the Santa Catalina along the transition zone between desert grassland and pine-oak forest revealed a distinct second species of Vaejovis vorhiesi group scorpion. Here we describe this new species, which represents the first record of two vorhiesigroup species inhabiting the same mountain range.

URL:  http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/4500/a-new-vaejovis-cl-koch-1836-the-second-known-vorhiesi-group-species-from-the-santa-catalina-mountains-of-arizona-scorpio

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-02/pp-nsd021913.php

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC366842

Summary
A new scorpion species, Vaejovis trinityae sp. nov. is described. This small brown species is found along the Mogollon Rim above Strawberry, Arizona. This is the first description of a new species of the “vorhiesi” group scorpions whose DNA phylogenetic analysis was published (Bryson et al., 2013); based on DNA data, the new species is most related to V. lapidicola Stahnke and V. crumpi Ayrey et Soleglad. It represents one of the “twenty-seven geographically cohesive lineages inferred from the mtDNA tree”. A unique characteristic of this species is that it exhibits arboreal behavior, being frequently found on Ponderosa pine trees.

URL:  http://www.science.marshall.edu/fet/euscorpius/p2013_176.pdf

coverbiojournal@linneansociety

Abstract

Geographical isolation can over time accumulate life-history variation which can eventually lead to speciation. We used five species ofVaejovis scorpions that have been isolated from one another since the Pleistocene glaciation to identify if biogeographical patterns have allowed for the accumulation of life-history variation among species. Gravid females were captured and brought back to the lab until giving birth. Once offspring had begun to disperse, measurements of female size, reproductive investment, offspring size, offspring number, and variation in offspring size were recorded. Differences in how each species allocated energy to these variables were analysed utilizing path analysis and structural equation modelling. Female and offspring size, litter size, and total litter mass differed among species, but relative energetic investment did not. Most significant differences among species were not present after removing the effect of female size, indicating that female size is a major source of life-history variation. Path analyses indicated that there was no size–number trade-off within any species and that each species allocates energy toward total litter mass differently. Additionally, as offspring size increased, the variation in offspring mass decreased. These results show that each species allocates the same relative amount of energy in different ways. The variation seen could be a response to environmental variability or uncertainty, a product of maternal effects, or caused by the sufficient accumulation of genetic differences due to geographical isolation. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, ●●, ●●–●●.

Online@http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12162/abstract

 

journal.pone.0052822.g002

Citation:  Bryson RW Jr, Riddle BR, Graham MR, Smith BT, Prendini L (2013) As Old as the Hills: Montane Scorpions in Southwestern North America Reveal Ancient Associations between Biotic Diversification and Landscape History.

Background

The age of lineages has become a fundamental datum in studies exploring the interaction between geological transformation and biotic diversification. However, phylogeographical studies are often biased towards lineages that are younger than the geological features of the landscapes they inhabit. A temporally deeper historical biogeography framework may be required to address episodes of biotic diversification associated with geologically older landscape changes. Signatures of such associations may be retained in the genomes of ecologically specialized (stenotopic) taxa with limited vagility. In the study presented here, genetic data from montane scorpions in the Vaejovis vorhiesi group, restricted to humid rocky habitats in mountains across southwestern North America, were used to explore the relationship between scorpion diversification and regional geological history.

Results

Strong phylogeographical signal was evident within the vorhiesi group, with 27 geographically cohesive lineages inferred from a mitochondrial phylogeny. A time-calibrated multilocus species tree revealed a pattern of Miocene and Pliocene (the Neogene period) lineage diversification. An estimated 21 out of 26 cladogenetic events probably occurred prior to the onset of the Pleistocene, 2.6 million years ago. The best-fit density-dependent model suggested diversification rate in the vorhiesi group gradually decreased through time.

Conclusions

Scorpions of the vorhiesi group have had a long history in the highlands of southwestern North America. Diversification among these stenotopic scorpions appears to have occurred almost entirely within the Neogene period, and is temporally consistent with the dynamic geological history of the Basin and Range, and Colorado Plateau physiographical provinces. The persistence of separate lineages at small spatial scales suggests that a combination of ecological stenotopy and limited vagility may make these scorpions particularly valuable indicators of geomorphological evolution.journal.pone.0052822.g001


Link: http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052822

Sissom, W. David, and James R. Reddell, 2009. Cave scorpions of Mexico and the United States [Escorpiones de cuevas de México y Estados Unidos]. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs, 7. Studies on the cave and endogean fauna of North America, V. Pp. 19-32.

Abstract:
Scorpions reported from caves in Mexico and the United States are reviewed. New records are included for: Centruroides gracilis, C. vittatus, Troglocormus willis, Alacran tartarus, Pseudouroctonus apacheanus, P. reddelli, Uroctonites sequoia, Serradigitus gertschi striatus, S. wupatkiensis, Vaejovis carolinianus, V. chisos, V. intermedius, V. nigrescens, and V  rossmani.

Francke, Oscar F. 2009. Description of a new species of troglophile Pseudouroctonus (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) from Coahuila, Mexico [Descripción de una nueva especie de Pseudouroctonus troglófilo (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) de Coahuila, México]. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs, 7. Studies on the cave and endogean fauna of North America, V. Pp. 11-18.

Abstract:
Pseudouroctonus savvasi, n.sp., is described from specimens collected in two separate caves in the state of Coahuila, México,
though it does not exhibit any marked troglomorphies. It is most closely related to Pseudouroctonus apacheanus (Gertsch and Soleglad), from which it is clearly differentiated by size, the number of teeth on the movable finger of the chelicerae, hemispermatophore morphology and pedipalp chela morphometrics.

 

Francke,O. F., and W.E. Savary. 2006. A new troglobitic Pseudouroctonus Stahnke (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) from northern México. Zootaxa, 1302:21-30.

Abstract:
Pseudouroctonus sprousei sp. nov., from El Abra cave, in Coahuila, México, is described from a
single adult male. It is most similar to Pseudouroctonus reddelli (Gertsch and Soleglad), a well known
troglophile from Texas and Coahuila, which is also the type species for the genus
Pseudouroctonus Stahnke.

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