Posts Tagged ‘theraphosids’


johnny-cash-tarantula-2 (1)

Abstract

This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genusAphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group’s taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (A. apacheum, A. minchi, A. rothi, A. schmidti, A. stahnkei = A. chalcodes; A.arnoldi = A. armada; A. behlei, A. vogelae = A. marxi; A. breenei = A. anax; A. chambersi, A. clarum, A.cryptethum, A. sandersoni, A. sullivani = A. eutylenum; A. clarki, A. coloradanum, A. echinum, A. gurleyi, A.harlingenum, A. odelli, A. waconum, A. wichitanum = A. hentzi; A. heterops = A. moderatum; A. jungi, A.punzoi = A. vorhiesi; A. brunnius, A. chamberlini, A. iviei, A. lithodomum, A. smithi, A. zionis = A. iodius; A.phanum, A. reversum = A. steindachneri), 14 new species (A. atomicumsp. n., A. catalinasp. n., A.chiricahuasp. n., A. icenogleisp. n., A. johnnycashisp. n., A. maderasp. n., A. marekisp. n., A. moellendorfisp. n., A. parvumsp. n., A. peloncillosp. n., A. prenticeisp. n., A. saguarosp. n., A. superstitionensesp. n., and A. xwalxwalsp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (A. baergi, A. cratium, A. hollyi, A. mordax, A. radinum, A.rusticum, A. texense). Our proposed species tree based on Anchored Enrichment data delimits five major lineages: a monotypic group confined to California, a western group, an eastern group, a group primarily distributed in high-elevation areas, and a group that comprises several miniaturized species. Multiple species are distributed throughout two biodiversity hotspots in the United States (i.e., California Floristic Province and Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands). Keys are provided for identification of both males and females. By conducting the most comprehensive sampling of a single theraphosid genus to date, this research significantly broadens the scope of prior molecular and morphological investigations, finally bringing a modern understanding of species delimitation in this dynamic and charismatic group of spiders.

Awesome …

URL http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6264

See also the National Geographic article at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/02/160204-animals-spiders-tarantulas-science-nation/

LiveScience review at http://www.livescience.com/53616-tarantula-named-for-johnny-cash.html

Blog title update:  Expanding  into news with general arachnids relevant to North America all in one place.  Mexico and the western states in the U.S. presents various transitions zones and micro habitats and is thus unique in arachnid taxa.

Hope you enjoy the site for educational and regional informations !

Sincerely,

Chad Lee B.Sc. 1995.

Biology and Natural Resource Management.  Texas Certified Applicator

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1-s2.0-S1055790313004223-fx1DNA

Abstract

The North American tarantula genus Aphonopelma provides one of the greatest challenges to species delimitation and downstream identification in spiders because traditional morphological characters appear ineffective for evaluating limits of intra- and interspecific variation in the group. We evaluated the efficacy of numerous molecular-based approaches to species delimitation within Aphonopelma based upon the most extensive sampling of theraphosids to date, while also investigating the sensitivity of randomized taxon sampling on the reproducibility of species boundaries. Mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences were sampled from 682 specimens spanning the genetic, taxonomic, and geographic breadth of the genus within the United States. The effects of random taxon sampling compared traditional Neighbor-Joining with three modern quantitative species delimitation approaches (ABGD, P ID(Liberal), and GMYC). Our findings reveal remarkable consistency and congruence across various approaches and sampling regimes, while highlighting highly divergent outcomes in GMYC. Our investigation allowed us to integrate methodologies into an efficient, consistent, and more effective general methodological workflow for estimating species boundaries within the mygalomorph spider genus Aphonopelma. Taken alone, these approaches are not particularly useful – especially in the absence of prior knowledge of the focal taxa. Only through the incorporation of multiple lines of evidence, employed in a hypothesis-testing framework, can the identification and delimitation of confident species boundaries be determined. A key point in studying closely related species, and perhaps one of the most important aspects of DNA barcoding, is to combine a sampling strategy that broadly identifies the extent of genetic diversity across the distributions of the species of interest and incorporates previous knowledge into the “species equation” (morphology, molecules, and natural history).

URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790313004223


TxBrown

The current Texas Parks and Wildlife magazine has a nice article on tarantulas.

Click the link to follow a short read online but be sure to purchase the magazine with your local stores for more pixs and the article.   Updated archive Link (4.23.10)

URL: http://www.tpwmagazine.com/archive/2010/mar/ed_3/index.phtml