Posts Tagged ‘Texas’


Update soon !

johnny-cash-tarantula-2 (1)

Abstract

This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genusAphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group’s taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (A. apacheum, A. minchi, A. rothi, A. schmidti, A. stahnkei = A. chalcodes; A.arnoldi = A. armada; A. behlei, A. vogelae = A. marxi; A. breenei = A. anax; A. chambersi, A. clarum, A.cryptethum, A. sandersoni, A. sullivani = A. eutylenum; A. clarki, A. coloradanum, A. echinum, A. gurleyi, A.harlingenum, A. odelli, A. waconum, A. wichitanum = A. hentzi; A. heterops = A. moderatum; A. jungi, A.punzoi = A. vorhiesi; A. brunnius, A. chamberlini, A. iviei, A. lithodomum, A. smithi, A. zionis = A. iodius; A.phanum, A. reversum = A. steindachneri), 14 new species (A. atomicumsp. n., A. catalinasp. n., A.chiricahuasp. n., A. icenogleisp. n., A. johnnycashisp. n., A. maderasp. n., A. marekisp. n., A. moellendorfisp. n., A. parvumsp. n., A. peloncillosp. n., A. prenticeisp. n., A. saguarosp. n., A. superstitionensesp. n., and A. xwalxwalsp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (A. baergi, A. cratium, A. hollyi, A. mordax, A. radinum, A.rusticum, A. texense). Our proposed species tree based on Anchored Enrichment data delimits five major lineages: a monotypic group confined to California, a western group, an eastern group, a group primarily distributed in high-elevation areas, and a group that comprises several miniaturized species. Multiple species are distributed throughout two biodiversity hotspots in the United States (i.e., California Floristic Province and Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands). Keys are provided for identification of both males and females. By conducting the most comprehensive sampling of a single theraphosid genus to date, this research significantly broadens the scope of prior molecular and morphological investigations, finally bringing a modern understanding of species delimitation in this dynamic and charismatic group of spiders.

Awesome …

URL http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6264

See also the National Geographic article at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/02/160204-animals-spiders-tarantulas-science-nation/

LiveScience review at http://www.livescience.com/53616-tarantula-named-for-johnny-cash.html

syntropinae2

Abstract

The first rigorous analysis of the phylogeny of the North American vaejovid scorpion subfamily Syntropinae is presented. The analysis is based on 250 morphological characters and 4221 aligned DNA nucleotides from three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene markers, for 145 terminal taxa, representing 47 species in 11 ingroup genera, and 15 species in eight outgroup genera. The monophyly and composition of Syntropinae and its component genera, as proposed by Soleglad and Fet, are tested. The following taxa are demonstrated to be para- or polyphyletic: Smeringurinae; Syntropinae; Vaejovinae; Stahnkeini; Syntropini; Syntropina; Thorelliina; Hoffmannius; Kochius; and Thorellius. The spinose (hooked or toothed) margin of the distal barb of the sclerotized hemi-mating plug is demonstrated to be a unique, unambiguous synapomorphy for Syntropinae, uniting taxa previously assigned to different subfamilies. Results of the analysis demonstrate a novel phylogenetic relationship for the subfamily, comprising six major clades and 11 genera, justify the establishment of six new genera, and they offer new insights about the systematics and historical biogeography of the subfamily, and the information content of morphological character systems.

Direct Link at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cla.12091/abstract.

Thanks to the Scorpion Files posting the news.  Its been a long time coming to see the results from the Scorpion Lab at AMNH.

06 May, 2014

Background

Survival in microrefugia represents an important paradigm in phylogeography for explaining rapid postglacial re-colonization by species in temperate regions. Microrefugia may allow populations to persist in areas where the climatic conditions on the surface have become unfavourable. Caves generally contain stable microclimates and may represent microrefugia for species capable of exploiting both cave and surface habitats (troglophiles). We examine the phylogeography of the troglophilic North American vaejovid scorpion Pseudouroctonus reddelli using 1,993 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data generated from 12 populations. We use (i) descriptive measures of genetic diversity and population genetics statistics, (ii) reconstructions of phylogeographical structure, spatial diffusion during diversification, and population sizes through time, and (iii) species distribution modelling to test predictions of the hypothesis that caves serve as microrefugia. We compare phylogeographical patterns in P. reddelli with other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas.

Results

Results revealed high haplotype and nucleotide diversity and substantial phylogeographical structure, probably generated during the Pleistocene. Spatial diffusion occurred along the southern edge of the Edwards Plateau from multiple refugia along the Balcones Escarpment. There was little evidence for population and geographical expansion. Species distribution models predicted substantial reductions in suitable epigean habitat for P. reddelli at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM).

Conclusions

High genetic diversity, strong phylogeographical structure, diffusion from multiple refugia, and unfavourable climatic conditions at the LGM collectively support the hypothesis that caves served as microrefugia for P. reddelli. Similar patterns of genetic structure in P. reddelli and other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas suggest that caves serving as microrefugia are important for the formation, maintenance, and future survival of troglophilic species in temperate karst regions.

Keywords:

Last Glacial Maximum; Refugia; Species distribution model; Scorpiones; Vaejovidae

URL:  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/14/9

Add in URL http://phylobiogeography.wordpress.com/

Random pictures from 2010 in Amarillo Texas:

T hawk 2 T hawk 1Peps

 

Blog title update:  Expanding  into news with general arachnids relevant to North America all in one place.  Mexico and the western states in the U.S. presents various transitions zones and micro habitats and is thus unique in arachnid taxa.

Hope you enjoy the site for educational and regional informations !

Sincerely,

Chad Lee B.Sc. 1995.

Biology and Natural Resource Management.  Texas Certified Applicator

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journal.pone.0068282.g002 (1)

Citation: Yamashita T, Rhoads DD (2013) Species Delimitation and Morphological Divergence in the Scorpion Centruroides vittatus (Say, 1821): Insights from Phylogeography.

Abstract:

Scorpion systematics and taxonomy have recently shown a need for revision, partially due to insights from molecular techniques. Scorpion taxonomy has been difficult with morphological characters as disagreement exists among researchers with character choice for adequate species delimitation in taxonomic studies. Within the family Buthidae, species identification and delimitation is particularly difficult due to the morphological similarity among species and extensive intraspecific morphological diversity. The genus Centruroides in the western hemisphere is a prime example of the difficulty in untangling the taxonomic complexity within buthid scorpions. In this paper, we present phylogeographic, Ecological Niche Modeling, and morphometric analyses to further understand how population diversification may have produced morphological diversity in Centruroides vittatus (Say, 1821). We show that C. vittatus populations in the Big Bend and Trans-Pecos region of Texas, USA are phylogeographically distinct and may predate the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, we suggest the extended isolation of Big Bend region populations may have created the C. vittatus variant once known as C. pantheriensis.

PLoS ONE 8(7): e68282. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068282

Sissom, W. David, and James R. Reddell, 2009. Cave scorpions of Mexico and the United States [Escorpiones de cuevas de México y Estados Unidos]. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs, 7. Studies on the cave and endogean fauna of North America, V. Pp. 19-32.

Abstract:
Scorpions reported from caves in Mexico and the United States are reviewed. New records are included for: Centruroides gracilis, C. vittatus, Troglocormus willis, Alacran tartarus, Pseudouroctonus apacheanus, P. reddelli, Uroctonites sequoia, Serradigitus gertschi striatus, S. wupatkiensis, Vaejovis carolinianus, V. chisos, V. intermedius, V. nigrescens, and V  rossmani.

Francke, Oscar F. 2009. Description of a new species of troglophile Pseudouroctonus (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) from Coahuila, Mexico [Descripción de una nueva especie de Pseudouroctonus troglófilo (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) de Coahuila, México]. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs, 7. Studies on the cave and endogean fauna of North America, V. Pp. 11-18.

Abstract:
Pseudouroctonus savvasi, n.sp., is described from specimens collected in two separate caves in the state of Coahuila, México,
though it does not exhibit any marked troglomorphies. It is most closely related to Pseudouroctonus apacheanus (Gertsch and Soleglad), from which it is clearly differentiated by size, the number of teeth on the movable finger of the chelicerae, hemispermatophore morphology and pedipalp chela morphometrics.

 

Francke,O. F., and W.E. Savary. 2006. A new troglobitic Pseudouroctonus Stahnke (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) from northern México. Zootaxa, 1302:21-30.

Abstract:
Pseudouroctonus sprousei sp. nov., from El Abra cave, in Coahuila, México, is described from a
single adult male. It is most similar to Pseudouroctonus reddelli (Gertsch and Soleglad), a well known
troglophile from Texas and Coahuila, which is also the type species for the genus
Pseudouroctonus Stahnke.

PDF LINK

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TxBrown

The current Texas Parks and Wildlife magazine has a nice article on tarantulas.

Click the link to follow a short read online but be sure to purchase the magazine with your local stores for more pixs and the article.   Updated archive Link (4.23.10)

URL: http://www.tpwmagazine.com/archive/2010/mar/ed_3/index.phtml

 

Description of site:  Provides a scorpion species list, desert biology, zoogeography, systematics, publications, habitat photos and specimen images.

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