Posts Tagged ‘Scorpion’


A new species of Vaejovis is described from the Mexican state of Aguascalientes. It is assigned to the “mexicanus” group and compared with similar species from Jalisco, Guanajuato, and San Luis Potosí. A map with their known distributions is provided.






The scorpion genus Alacran Francke, 1982, endemic to eastern Mexico, was created to accommodate Alacran tartarusFrancke, 1982. This remarkable troglobiotic species is adapted for life in some of the world’s deepest caves, 720–916 m below the surface in the Sistema Huautla of the state of Oaxaca (the deepest records at which a scorpion has been found). A second species, Alacran chamuco Francke, 2009, was later described from Te Cimutaá, also in Oaxaca. In the present contribution, we describe a third species, Alacran triquimera, sp. nov., recently discovered in a cave system in the state of Puebla, and test the monophyly and internal relationships of Alacran, based on a cladistic analysis of 10 terminal taxa (including seven species representing all four genera of Typhlochactidae) and 151 informative morphological characters, building on a previously published matrix. The single most parsimonious tree obtained, supports the monophyly of Alacran and the following relationships among its component species: (A. chamuco (A. tartarus + A. triquimera, sp. nov.)). The phylogenetic relationships among the three species of Alacran are consistent with the biogeographical history of the caves they inhabit. Based on the geological history of the Sierra Madre del Sur and the likely similar speleogenesis of the Tres Quimeras, Sistema Huautla and Te Cimutaá caves, we propose a vicariance hypothesis to account for the disjunct distribution of the three species of Alacran, whereby an initially more widespread, panmictic ancestral population speciated into three geographically isolated taxa following fragmentation of the southern Sierra Madre del Sur.

Source from the Scorpion Files and CSIRO Publishing.  See URL at

The scorpion genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861, endemic to North and Central America, is the most diverse in family Diplocentridae
Karsch, 1880. There is considerable morphological variation among the species of Diplocentrus. It is necessary to test the monophyly and
phylogenetic position of Diplocentrus in order to revise its diagnosis and taxonomic limits. The present contribution provides a phylogenetic
analysis of 29 species of Diplocentrus, five exemplar species representing the three putatively most closely related diplocentrid genera,
and an exemplar of a more distantly related diplocentrid genus. The analysis was based on 95 morphological characters and 4202 aligned
nucleotides from DNA sequences of five markers in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Separate and simultaneous parsimony analyses
of the morphological and DNA sequence data were conducted with equal weighting and six implied weighting regimes. The nuclear
and mitochondrial DNA datasets were also analyzed separately and simultaneously with Bayesian inference. The resulting topologies
recovered the monophyly of Diplocentrus, with the exception of two neobothriotaxic species from central Mexico, for which a new genus
Kolotl Santibáñez-López et al., 2014, is justified. The keyserlingii group, as previously defined, was not monophyletic due to the placement
of two species in the mexicanus group; the rest of its component species were monophyletic, however. A third clade was recovered that has
not been previously recognized: the zacatecanus group, comprising four species from northern Mexico and the southwestern U.S.A. New
insights are provided concerning relationships among Diplocentrus and the diplocentrid genera Bioculus Stahnke, 1968 and Didymocentrus
Kraepelin, 1905, the phylogenetic positions of which were previously ambiguous..

Edit note with format issues…Thanks and will try to correct.

Blog title update:  Expanding  into news with general arachnids relevant to North America all in one place.  Mexico and the western states in the U.S. presents various transitions zones and micro habitats and is thus unique in arachnid taxa.

Hope you enjoy the site for educational and regional informations !


Chad Lee B.Sc. 1995.

Biology and Natural Resource Management.  Texas Certified Applicator


The scorpion genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861, comprising more than 50 species, most of

The scorpion genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861, comprising more than 50 species, most of which are endemic to Mexico, is the most diverse in the family Diplocentridae Karsch, 1880 (Santibáñez-López et al., 2011). Hoffmann (1931) divided the Mexican species into two groups, the whitei group and the keyserlingi group, based largely on differences in size and coloration. Francke (1977) redefined these groups. The whitei group, renamed the mexicanus group because it included the type species of the genus, comprised species with short cheliceral fingers and the pedipalp femur wider than high. The keyserlingii group comprised species with long cheliceral fingers and the pedipalp femur higher than wide. Several new species of Diplocentrus were since described, but no attempt was made to synthesize the taxonomy of the species assigned to either group or further clarify the validity of the groups. In the present contribution, the species of Diplocentrus with the pedipalp femur higher than wide are reviewed. An operational diagnosis is provided for the keyserlingii group. Diplocentrus formosus Armas and Martín-Frías, 2003, previously synonymized with Diplocentrus tehuano Francke, 1977, is reinstated. Revised, updated diagnoses are provided for all previously described species and three new species, Diplocentrus kraepelini, n. sp., Diplocentrus sagittipalpus, n. sp., and Diplocentrus sissomi, n. sp., are described. The female of Diplocentrus mitlae Francke, 1977, is described for the first time. A dichotomous key is provided for identification of the 10 species in the keyserlingii group.





Centruroides franckei, n. sp. and Centruroides rodolfoi, n. sp. are described from Oaxaca, Mexico. These species belong to the(striped) group within the genus. Thirteen species of the genus are reported for the state, six of them belonging to the (striped)group (infamatus-nigrovariatus subgroup). Both new species are compared to their most morphological similar species. A map with the six (striped) (infamatus-nigrovariatus subgroup) species in the state is also provided.

Zootaxa 3734 (2): 130–140





Geographical isolation can over time accumulate life-history variation which can eventually lead to speciation. We used five species ofVaejovis scorpions that have been isolated from one another since the Pleistocene glaciation to identify if biogeographical patterns have allowed for the accumulation of life-history variation among species. Gravid females were captured and brought back to the lab until giving birth. Once offspring had begun to disperse, measurements of female size, reproductive investment, offspring size, offspring number, and variation in offspring size were recorded. Differences in how each species allocated energy to these variables were analysed utilizing path analysis and structural equation modelling. Female and offspring size, litter size, and total litter mass differed among species, but relative energetic investment did not. Most significant differences among species were not present after removing the effect of female size, indicating that female size is a major source of life-history variation. Path analyses indicated that there was no size–number trade-off within any species and that each species allocates energy toward total litter mass differently. Additionally, as offspring size increased, the variation in offspring mass decreased. These results show that each species allocates the same relative amount of energy in different ways. The variation seen could be a response to environmental variability or uncertainty, a product of maternal effects, or caused by the sufficient accumulation of genetic differences due to geographical isolation. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, ●●, ●●–●●.



Sissom, W. David, and James R. Reddell, 2009. Cave scorpions of Mexico and the United States [Escorpiones de cuevas de México y Estados Unidos]. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs, 7. Studies on the cave and endogean fauna of North America, V. Pp. 19-32.

Scorpions reported from caves in Mexico and the United States are reviewed. New records are included for: Centruroides gracilis, C. vittatus, Troglocormus willis, Alacran tartarus, Pseudouroctonus apacheanus, P. reddelli, Uroctonites sequoia, Serradigitus gertschi striatus, S. wupatkiensis, Vaejovis carolinianus, V. chisos, V. intermedius, V. nigrescens, and V  rossmani.

Francke, Oscar F. 2009. Description of a new species of troglophile Pseudouroctonus (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) from Coahuila, Mexico [Descripción de una nueva especie de Pseudouroctonus troglófilo (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) de Coahuila, México]. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs, 7. Studies on the cave and endogean fauna of North America, V. Pp. 11-18.

Pseudouroctonus savvasi, n.sp., is described from specimens collected in two separate caves in the state of Coahuila, México,
though it does not exhibit any marked troglomorphies. It is most closely related to Pseudouroctonus apacheanus (Gertsch and Soleglad), from which it is clearly differentiated by size, the number of teeth on the movable finger of the chelicerae, hemispermatophore morphology and pedipalp chela morphometrics.


Francke,O. F., and W.E. Savary. 2006. A new troglobitic Pseudouroctonus Stahnke (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) from northern México. Zootaxa, 1302:21-30.

Pseudouroctonus sprousei sp. nov., from El Abra cave, in Coahuila, México, is described from a
single adult male. It is most similar to Pseudouroctonus reddelli (Gertsch and Soleglad), a well known
troglophile from Texas and Coahuila, which is also the type species for the genus
Pseudouroctonus Stahnke.


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