Posts Tagged ‘Biogeography’


Abstract

Recent syntheses of phylogeographical data from terrestrial animals in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts have revealed a complex history of geologic and climatic vicariance events. We studied the phylogeography of Smeringurus vachoni to see how vicariance events may have impacted a large, endemic rock scorpion. Additionally, we used the phylogeographical data to examine the validity of two subspecies of S. vachoni that were described using unconventional morphological characters. Phylogenetic, network and SAMOVA analyses indicate that S. vachoni consists of 11 clades mostly endemic to isolated desert mountain ranges. Molecular clock estimates suggest that clades diversified between the Miocene and early Pleistocene. Species distribution models predict a contraction of suitable habitat during the last glacial maximum. Landscape interpolations and Migrate-n analyses highlight areas of gene flow across the Colorado River. Smeringurus vachoni does not comprise two subspecies. Instead, the species represents at least 11 mitochondrial clades that probably diversified by vicariance associated with Pleistocene climate changes and formation of ancient lakes along the Colorado River corridor. Gene flow appears to have occurred from west to east across the Colorado River during periodic river avulsions  Thanks to Matt for sending PDF.See at
 https://academic.oup.com/biolinnean/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/biolinnean/blx058/3869551/Ancient-lakes-Pleistocene-climates-and-river?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Abstract

Diplocentrus duende n. sp. is described based on adult males collected from a locality in the Tehuacán–Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico. This species has punctate pedipalp surfaces, a condition present only in four other species of this specious genus. As suggested here, this condition has evolved independently in these species within the “mexicanus” group of Diplocentrus from the rest of the diplocentrids

See at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S163106911730063X

See at several news sources:

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/huge-new-spider-species-discovered-mexican-cave-180962848/

See PDF at http://www.science.marshall.edu/fet/euscorpius/p2017_237.pdf

 

syntropinaeAbstract:

Four distinct genera, forming two monophyletic groups, are basal in the phylogeny of the North American vaejovid scorpion subfamily Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905: Konetontli González-Santillán and Prendini, 2013; Maaykuyak González-Santillán and Prendini, 2013; Syntropis Kraepelin, 1900; and Vizcaino González-Santillán and Prendini, 2013. All except the species of Konetontli, treated elsewhere, are revised in the present contribution. The two species of Maaykuyak, three species of Syntropis, and monotypic Vizcaino are redescribed; the adults of Syntropis williamsi Soleglad et al., 2007, described for the first time; keys to identification of the species of Maaykuyak and Syntropis presented; and new locality records and updated distribution maps provided for all species covered.
URL at http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/6662

 

mcwestiAbstract:
Two new species of the mexicanus group of Vaejovis C.L. Koch are described from the Madrean pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental in the state of Durango, Mexico. These species, Vaejovis sierrae sp. nov. and Vaejovis mcwesti sp. nov., are distinguished from each other and the only other species of the mexicanus group known from this mountain range, Vaejovis montanus Graham and Bryson, by morphometrics, carinal development of the pedipalps, granulation of the metasoma, and body size. A key to the species of the mexicanus group from the Sierra Madre

Reference:
Sissom WD, Graham MR, Donaldson TG, Bryson Jr RW. Two new Vaejovis C.L. Koch 1836 from highlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae). Insecta Mundi. 2016 (0477):1-14. [Open Access]

Great Article not relevant to North America but wonderful to the Americas in general.

 

Abstract

Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C.guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.

journal.pone.0148277.g001

PLOS ONE:  URL @ http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148277

johnny-cash-tarantula-2 (1)

Abstract

This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genusAphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group’s taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (A. apacheum, A. minchi, A. rothi, A. schmidti, A. stahnkei = A. chalcodes; A.arnoldi = A. armada; A. behlei, A. vogelae = A. marxi; A. breenei = A. anax; A. chambersi, A. clarum, A.cryptethum, A. sandersoni, A. sullivani = A. eutylenum; A. clarki, A. coloradanum, A. echinum, A. gurleyi, A.harlingenum, A. odelli, A. waconum, A. wichitanum = A. hentzi; A. heterops = A. moderatum; A. jungi, A.punzoi = A. vorhiesi; A. brunnius, A. chamberlini, A. iviei, A. lithodomum, A. smithi, A. zionis = A. iodius; A.phanum, A. reversum = A. steindachneri), 14 new species (A. atomicumsp. n., A. catalinasp. n., A.chiricahuasp. n., A. icenogleisp. n., A. johnnycashisp. n., A. maderasp. n., A. marekisp. n., A. moellendorfisp. n., A. parvumsp. n., A. peloncillosp. n., A. prenticeisp. n., A. saguarosp. n., A. superstitionensesp. n., and A. xwalxwalsp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (A. baergi, A. cratium, A. hollyi, A. mordax, A. radinum, A.rusticum, A. texense). Our proposed species tree based on Anchored Enrichment data delimits five major lineages: a monotypic group confined to California, a western group, an eastern group, a group primarily distributed in high-elevation areas, and a group that comprises several miniaturized species. Multiple species are distributed throughout two biodiversity hotspots in the United States (i.e., California Floristic Province and Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands). Keys are provided for identification of both males and females. By conducting the most comprehensive sampling of a single theraphosid genus to date, this research significantly broadens the scope of prior molecular and morphological investigations, finally bringing a modern understanding of species delimitation in this dynamic and charismatic group of spiders.

Awesome …

URL http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6264

See also the National Geographic article at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/02/160204-animals-spiders-tarantulas-science-nation/

LiveScience review at http://www.livescience.com/53616-tarantula-named-for-johnny-cash.html

toxins-08-00002-ag

Abstract

Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods, which are distributed worldwide, except for Antarctica and some Pacific islands. Scorpion envenomation represents a public health problem in several parts of the world. Mexico harbors the highest diversity of scorpions in the world, including some of the world’s medically important scorpion species. The systematics and diversity of Mexican scorpion fauna has not been revised in the past decade; and due to recent and exhaustive collection efforts as part of different ongoing major revisionary systematic projects, our understanding of this diversity has changed compared with previous assessments. Given the presence of several medically important scorpion species, the study of their venom in the country is also important. In the present contribution, the diversity of scorpion species in Mexico is revised and updated based on several new systematic contributions; 281 different species are recorded. Commentaries on recent venomic, ecological and behavioral studies of Mexican scorpions are also provided. A list containing the most important peptides identified from 16 different species is included. A graphical representation of the different types of components found in these venoms is also revised. A map with hotspots showing the current knowledge on scorpion distribution and areas explored in Mexico is also provided.

See here at http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/8/1/2

 

kremani2016

Abstract:
Two new species of Pseudouroctonus are described from southeastern Arizona, USA, Pseudouroctonus santarita, sp. nov. from the Santa Rita Mountains and P. kremani, sp. nov. from the Santa Catalina Mountains. These new species are closely related to P. apacheanus (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972). A combination of morphological differences in the hemispermatophore, the mating plug, and several morphometric-based characters are identified as diagnostic. New substructures are identified for the mating plug.

URL in PDF Format : http://www.science.marshall.edu/fet/euscorpius/p2015_211.pdf