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The suborder Mygalomorphae is generally poorly represented in the cave faunas of the world. The genus Hemirrhagus is endemic to Mexico and has 22 described species. It is the only one with epigean, troglophile and troglobitic species. Lack of urticating setae, loss of eye pigmentation and ocular reduction are interpreted as evolutionary reversals related to their troglobitic habits. From five troglobitic species in the genus, only the male of Hemirrhagus stygius is known. Five new troglobitic species are described with both sexes: Hemirrhagus akheronteus sp. nov., Hemirrhagus billsteelei sp. nov., Hemirrhaugus diablo sp. nov., Hemirrhagus kalebi sp. nov. and Hemirrhagus sprousei sp. nov. The female of Hemirrhagus chilango is described for the first time. Hemirrhagus akheronteus sp. nov. has a group of spinose setae on the opisthosoma; this setal modification was never reported in any other theraphosid spiders. Females of Hemirrhagus kalebi sp. nov. and Hemirrhagus sprousei sp. nov. lay fixed hammock egg sacs, which is an unusual behavior among species in Theraphosinae. Two stridulating setae previously reported only in epigean species are present on some of the new troglobites.

Mendoza, J. I. & Francke, O. F. (2018). Five new cave-dwelling species of Hemirrhagus Simon 1903 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae), with notes on the generic distribution and novel morphological features.

Zootaxa 4407(4): 451-482. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4407.4.1.


Only book for etymology and the history of references in scorpion taxonomy referenced to date.

Now online:



A new species of vaejovid scorpion from northern California, Pseudouroctonus maidu sp. n., is named and described. This new species appears to be most similar to Pseudouroctonus iviei (Gertsch & Soleglad, 1972) and Pseudouroctonus glimmei (Hjelle, 1972).


California, Kovarikia, Pseudouroctonus, taxonomy, Vaejovinae


Recent fieldwork in northern California has revealed the presence of a previously undescribed species in the vaejovid scorpion genus Pseudouroctonus Stahnke, 1974. To facilitate its inclusion in discussions of ongoing systematic and phylogeographic studies of Pseudouroctonus and its near relatives (Francke and Savary 2006,Bryson et al. 2013, Bryson et al. 2014, and others in preparation), the new species is named and described herein. It represents the third species of Pseudouroctonus in California, all endemic to the state, and only the fourth new species of scorpion to be described from California in the past twenty years.




A new scorpion species, Vaejovis troupi sp. n., is described and placed in the “vorhiesi” group of the genus Vaejovis. Based on a recent molecular analysis of Bryson et al. (2013), this species is shown to be related to V. vorhiesi and V. grahami. Two of three diagnostic characters found in this new species are the presence of six inner denticles (ID) on the pedipalpal fixed and movable fingers, and a unique arrangement of trichobothria on the external surface of the pedipalp patella. This species was found in an isolated montane habitat in the Whetstone Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona.


About the author:  I, Chad Lee, recieved my B.Sc. from Sul Ross State University in Alpine Texas in 1995.  Pursued my graduate degree at West Texas A&M University in Canyon Texas in fall 95 spring 96 as a Graduate Teaching Assistant with the Biology Department. Returned for Fall 04.  Dr. David Sissom as advisor.  During my college years I’ve been a field research assistant to Dr. Sissom at Big Bend Ranch State Park in the early-mid 90s studying and collecting data for scorpion population dynamics in BBRSP.  During my Graduate years, Kari McWest came on board with WT and we have maintained a good friendship over the years.  We both had great times at BBRSP.  In 2005, Dr. Sissom, Kari McWest, Lee Gervais and myself teamed up with Dr. Oscar Francke and students in Chihuahua City, Chihuahua for collecting and catalog’en of voucher scorpion specimens for AMNH in New York for the Vaejovidae project.  Two weeks collecting through Chihuahua, Durango and part of Zacatecas was an great event.  View the powerpoint at the AMNH site.

I have attended two American Arachnology Conferences and three American Tarantula Conferences.

Click to see the about me page and I am also on Facebook. 🙂

About the WebSites:  I developed my original site with Yahoo-Geocities nearly 8 years ago titled Scorpions from the Chihuahuan Desert Region of Mexico and the United States.  I also started the Scorpion SiteRing with 

Yahoo Geocities in late October 09 merged into Yahoo Small Business.  Doing so have thus created the domain name: .